ERISA Authorizes a Participant to Sue for Misconduct when it Impairs Plan Assets in Participant's Individual Account

James LaRue  v. DeWolff, Boberg & Associates Inc., 128 S. Ct. 1020 (2008).

LaRuefiled an action under ERISA alleging that his employer (also the plan administrator) breached its fiduciary duty with regards to an ERISA-regulated 401(k) retirement savings plan by failing to follow his investment instructions.  Relying on the Supreme Court’s ruling in Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. v. Russell that a participant could not bring a suit to recover consequential damages resulting from the processing of a claim under a plan that paid a fixed level of benefits, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the district court’s grant of summary judgment in favor of the plan on the grounds that § 502(a)(2) did not provide a remedy for LaRue’s “individual injury.”  The Supreme Court disagreed. 

In an opinion written by Justice Stevens, the Court held that “although § 502(a)(2)  does not provide a remedy for individual injuries distinct from plan injuries, that provision does authorize recovery for fiduciary breaches that impair the value of the plan assets in a participant’s individual account.”  The Court reasoned that in the context of defined contribution plans, the misconduct did not need to threaten the solvency of the entire plan in order for § 409 (which provides remedies for breach of fiduciary duty) to apply.  Rather, the legislative history and plain language of the statute authorizes a participant to enforce fiduciary obligations under ERISA, and the administrator’s failure to follow the LaRue’sinvestment instructions could qualify as a breach of those duties.